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Table 2 Comparison of important synthetic methods used of MIONPs

From: Multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: diverse synthetic approaches, surface modifications, cytotoxicity towards biomedical and industrial applications

MethodSize distributionShapeAdvantagesLimitationsMagnetic values (emu/g)
Co-precipitation3–100 nm with broad distributionSphericalAffordable, rapid and can be easily scaled up to larger scaleHigh polydispersity index
and controlling shape and size of NPs is challenging
Microemulsion and reverse microemulsions4–15 nm with narrow distributionSpherical or cubicDesired size of the nanoparticles can be obtained by adjusting the aqueous core droplet sizeDifficult to remove surfactants and only small amounts can be synthesized> 30
Sonochemical20–80 nm with broad distributionSphericalUse of fewer reagents and minimal purification stepsHighly specific experimental device required20–85
Polyol10–50 nm with narrow distributionCubicEasy to control the size and shape of the
High-temperature required50–80
Thermal decomposition6–80 nm with broad distributionSphericalAbility to synthesize highly crystalline MIONPs in the presence of surfactantsHigh temperature is required for producing nanoparticles65
Hydrothermal2–40 nm with narrow distributionSpherical or cubicThe particle size can be controlled easily by regulating the rate of nucleation and grain growthHigh temperature and pressure are required56–72