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Table 1 Summary of noble metal-free 2D carbon-based electrocatalysts for HER

From: Noble metal-free two dimensional carbon-based electrocatalysts for water splitting

MaterialApplicationSynthesis methodElectrolyteOnset potential versus RHE (V)Over potential versus RHE (V)Tafel slope (mV dec−1)References
B-doped grapheneHERSonication0.5 M H2SO40.300.47130[66]
S-doped grapheneHERPyrolysis0.5 M H2SO40.5778[71]
NMPGHERPyrolysis0.5 M H2SO40.23109[170]
N,P/grapheneHERAnnealing0.5 M H2SO40.4291[75]
N,P/grapheneHERPyrolysis0.5 M H2SO40.3789[171]
N,S/grapheneHERCVD0.5 M H2SO40.130.2880.5[172]
N,S/grapheneHERSonication0.5 M H2SO40.30120[74]
N,B-grapheneHERAnnealing0.1 M KOH0.1782.1[86]
CoNi/NCHERAnnealing0.1 M H2SO40.14105[173]
CoP/carbonHERHydrothermal0.5 M H2SO40.070.1156.7[174]
Co/N-doped carbonHERHydrothermal0.1 M KOH0.060.25126[175]
VCN/Fe4NHERCarbonization0.1 M KOH0.1780[153]
Defect grapheneHERAnnealing0.5 M H2SO41.555[85]
Ni@NCHERAnnealing1.0 M KOH0.070.2160[176]
Fe3C-grapheneHERCVD0.5 M H2SO44946[177]
Mo2C/NCHERPyrolysis1.0 M KOH6060[178]
N,S/carbonHERPyrolysis0.5 M H2SO40.157.4[107]